Arshjyot kaur,  Research co-ordinator


  1. As per the report of Ministry of statistics ‘’India in figures’’ 2018, the population of India stands at 1.33 billion. An urgent need was felt to institute population control measures and the Two Child Policy was introduced by some of the state governments in this regard.


  1. According to the policy, citizens of the country were encouraged to limit the number of children to two. While this policy was not legally binding, but was to be implemented through general awareness. It was decided that no government jobs will be given to individuals having more than two children. Assam will become the fourth state after Maharashtra (2001), Madhya Pradesh (2001), and Rajasthan (1994) to implement this policy from Jan 2021.


Need for the Policy.


(a)     The population continues to proliferate copiously in the Empowered Action Group states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, UP, Rajasthan, MP, Bihar and Jharkhand. These states will account for nearly two-thirds of the increase in population during the period 2021-41.[1]


(b)     Inspite of the perceptible decline in Total Fertility Rate from 3.6 in 1991 to 2.3 in 2013, India is yet to achieve a replacement level of 2.1


(c)      A policy like this will help to control the fertility at rapid pace like the One Child Policy of China.


(d)     Sometimes, linking the denial of social and economical benefits can force prospective parents to limit the number of children in order to avail the benefits.


Limitations of the Policy


The policy might attract a number of social consequences like Sex selective(HOW??) abortions, Gender imbalances, Negative population growth etc.

  • The third child might face exclusion in the sense of education and health coverage benefits.

Economic survey of 2016 -17 states that the strict population control measures have led to an ageing population.

Remove the bullets make them points





  1. It is essential to understand the dynamics of population growth for designing an appropriate response. The factors that lead to high population growth must be addressed to begin with.


(a)Future population growth would be largely driven by the population            momentum and the rising life expectancy


(b)A further slowing down of the momentum will require raising the age of marriage, delaying pregnancy and ensuring spacing between births.


(c)      Putting a cap on the number of children to limit fertility is not much relevant now. Even states like Assam (TFR 2.3), Odisha (2.0), and Uttarakhand (1.9), which are following some form of two child policy are near replacement level TFR or below it.[2]


(d)     The declaration of the National Colloquium on Population Policies (2003) organised by the National Human Rights Commission also recapitulates the two- child policy as regressive and violating the principle of voluntary informed choice, human rights and rights of the child.




  1. At the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974, the Minister of Heath and Family Planning stated that ‘’development is the best contraceptive’’ and called for a more balanced approach to population control. There is a need to implement this wisdom and focus on nutrition, education and livelihood for all. A stabilized population will be an obvious outcome of such comprehensive socio-economic development which is the need of the hour.




[1] Office of Registrar General- Press Release

[2] NITI AAYOG TFR report 2016

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